Technical guidance

HIV and Young People Who Have Sex 
A Technical Brief 

A technical brief for policy-makers, sex; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate donors, service-planners, service-providers and community-services; examples of programmes that may work. This brief aims to catalyze and address their needs and rights; and approaches and inform discussions about how best to provide services, considerations for providing services that both draw upon programmes and support for young people who sell sex. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning young people who sell sex.

HIV and Young Transgender People 
A Technical Brief 

Transgender people are almost everywhere denied legal recognition of their gender and may also be penalized by laws criminalizing same-sex behavior. Some young transgender people have overlapping vulnerabilities with other young key populations, such as injecting drugs and selling sex, which can put them at higher risk of acquiring HIV and also lead to increased stigmatization. In addition, experiences of abuse, exploitation and violence, including sexual violence, are commonplace.

HIV and Young People Who Inject Drugs 
A Technical Brief 

Compared to their age peers in the wider population, and further affecting risk perception. Apart from sexual contact to older people who inject drugs, young people who inject with intimate partners, some young people may also drugs are more vulnerable to HIV. This is due to specific risk exchange e.g. sex for drugs, to obtain money for drugs, behavior such as sharing non-sterile injecting equipment, or those at risk of sexual abuse.

HIV and Men Who Have Sex With Men 
A Technical Brief 

Compared to their age peers in the general population, and to older MSM, young MSM are often more vulnerable to HIV. This is due to numerous individual and structural factors that are linked to specific risk behaviors such as inconsistent condom use and greater use of drugs or alcohol.

Guidance document: Strengthening the Adolescent Component of National HIV Programmes Through Country Assessments: Adolescent Assessment and Decision-Makers' (AADM) Tool

This guidance document and its accompanying tool, the Adolescent Assessment and Decision-Makers Tool (AADM), were devised to facilitate country assessments aimed at strengthening the adolescent component of national HIV programmes. The purpose of the country assessments is to: (1) support country teams in the identification of equity and performance gaps affecting adolescent HIV programming; and (2) define priority actions to improve the effectiveness of the national adolescent HIV response.

The Guidance document annex can be found here.

Adolescent HIV Testing, Counselling and Care: Implementing guidance for health providers and planners

The tool illustrates, animates and amplifies the recommendations and key messages of the formal guidelines with practical guidance and engaging, multi-format resources for reaching adolescents and providing more appropriate, appealing and effective HIV testing and counselling, treatment and care services specifically for them. The tool also covers operational considerations that must be addressed for effective implementation of the recommendations. It presents concrete, practice examples of service delivery approaches that have been successful and practical tools that have been useful for some programmes, and that can be replicated or adapted to suit specific settings. It also presents the perspectives of adolescents living with HIV, health providers and planners.


HIV and Adolescents: Guidance for HIV Testing and Counselling and Care for Adolescents Living with HIV

Guidance for HTC and on care for adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) explicitly considers the range of adolescent needs and issues. The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Global Network of People Living with HIV (GNP+), has developed these guidelines to provide specific recommendations and expert suggestions for national policy-makers and programme managers and their partners and stakeholders, on prioritizing, planning and providing HIV testing, counselling, treatment and care services for adolescents.

Prevention and Treatment of HIV and other Sexually-Transmitted Infections (STIs) among Men who have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Recommendations for a public health approach. WHO, June 2011. [PDF]
The Guidelines focus on the prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people.  They include evidence-based recommendations, the summary and grading of evidence, implementation issues and key research gaps.  Although the focus of this guidance is on the low- and middle-income countries, WHO recommends that this guidance be also available for MSM and transgender people in high-income countries.

This document presents good practice recommendations that focus on ensuring an enabling environment for the recognition and protection of the human rights of MSM and transgender people.  Without such conditions, implementation of the more specific technical recommendations is problematic.



International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education: An evidence-informed approach for schools, teachers and health educators. UNESCO, December 2009. [PDF]
This voluntary and non-mandatory International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education developed by UNESCO in partnership with UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO seeks to assist education, health and other relevant authorities to develop and implement school-based sexuality education materials and programmes.

Volume I [PDF] focuses on the rationale for sexuality education and provides sound technical advice on characteristics of effective programmes.  It is the outcome of a rigorous review of the literature on the impact of sexuality education and sexual behavior, drawing upon 87 studies from around the world.

Volume II [PDF], a companion document, focuses on the topics and learning objectives to be covered in a 'basic minimum package' on sexuality education for children and young people from 5 to 18+ years of age and includes a bibliography of useful resources.  It was informed by a review of curricula from 12 countries, as well as other international models.



Technical guide for countries to set targets for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users. WHO, UNODC, UNAIDS, 2009.
This document provides technical guidance to countries on setting ambitious, but achievable national targets for scaling up towards universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users (IDUs).

This technical guide provides countries with: (a) a framework and process to set national targets; (b) a comprehensive package of core interventions for IDUs; (c) a set of indicators and indicative targets (or "benchmarks") to be used to set programmatic objectives, and monitor and evaluate HIV interventions for IDUs; and (d) examples of data sources.


UNAIDS Guidance Note on HIV and Sex Work. March 2009. [PDF]
Provides clarification and direction regarding approaches by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS to reduce HIV risk and vulnerability in the context of sex work.  It provides a policy and programmatic emphasis that rests on three interdependent pillars: (1) access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support for all sex workers and their clients; (2) supportive environments and partnerships that facilitate universal access to needed services, including life choices and occupational alternatives to sex work for those who want to leave it; and (3) action to address structural issues related to HIV and sex.


Essential prevention and care interventions for adults and adolescents living with HIV in resource-limited settings. WHO, March 2008.
This document is the result of an effort to review the evidence and develop recommendations for interventions to reduce illness associated with HIV infection and prevent HIV transmission.  These recommendations seek to provide global, technical, evidence-based recommendations for prevention and care interventions, other than ART, for people living with HIV in resource-limited settings.  They are primarily intended for managers of national and sub-national AIDS programmes and nongovernmental organizations that deliver HIV care services and for policy-makers involved in scaling up HIV prevention, care and treatment in settings with limited resources.


Global Guidance Briefs - HIV Interventions for Young People, UNAIDS IATT for Young People, 2008.
This series of seven Global Guidance Briefs developed by the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on HIV and Young People, aims to help decision makers (including development practitioners, governments, donors and civil society organizations) understand what needs to be done, based on the latest global evidence on effective HIV interventions for young people.  Available in English, Francais, Espanol and Portugues. [PDF]


HIV/AIDS in young people: A systematic review of the evidence from developing countries. UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Young People, 2006.
This report provides evidence-based recommendations for policy-makers, programme managers and researchers to guide efforts towards meeting the UN goals on HIV/AIDS and young people.  These goals aim to decrease prevalence and vulnerability; and to increase access to information, skills and services.  This report provides a systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions provided: through schools, health services, mass media, communities, and to young people who are most vulnerable to HIV infection.  The report classifies these interventions in three categories:

  • Steady (don't implement yet, needs more work and evaluation)
  • Ready (implement widely, but evaluate carefully)
  • Go (implement on a large scale while monitoring coverage and quality)
    Transitioning of care and other services for adolescents for adolescents living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa 
This technical brief provides guidance for program managers and policymakers in order to develop services for ALHIV and their families/caregivers as they transition toward HIV self-management and adult clinical care. Highlighting key principles and recommendations, this brief offers guidance to countries and programs on how to provide the multidisciplinary care, support, and treatment services these adolescents need.




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